We are going to try in few lines to give you a preview of the Bouddhist philosophy, as it has been taught by Sidharta Gotama Buddha in India 2 500 years ago.
The Buddhism is a simple, convenient and extremely logical philosophy because based (among others) on the concepts of cause and effect (action/reaction) and that nothing can exist without a cause.
Finally, the Buddhism is a religion or philosophy of action. Nobody can be said Buddhist if he does not respects the 5 precepts and works on it (meditation, Sila, Magga)
The Fourth Noble Truths
It is the founding " text " of Buddhism. Buddha has preach the 4 Nobles truths to 5 monks (former disciples) immediately after his Enlightement.
A lot of mistakes have been said , especially concerning the first of the 4 truths:
1 - Dukkha : Very badly translate as "suffering". Dukkha must not be translate as it means life, everything that it is not Nirvana is Dhukka (pain, joyce, life, highest meditation level, everything)
2 - Samudaya : The Origin of Dukkha.
3 - Nirodha : Cessation of Dhukka
4 - Magga : The eight Noble Path that leads to the cessation of Dhukka.
Theoritically, it is very simple.
-Dukkha and our six sens (for the Buddhist, we have 6 sens) cause endless birth and death circle (Samasara). In the Samasara, we are never satisfy and always pursue something (we always wants plus or less of something.
- It is the attachment to our desires or to our repulsions that maintains us in this infernal cycle. To stop this samasara circle, we have to stop Dhukka.
- It is Nirodha. Nirodha tells us how to stop Dhukka, how to break one point in the circle. The only solution is Nirvana ou Nibanna.The main problem is thirst or "Tanha", thirst, envy..... We must stop "Tanha".
- The only way to stop Tanha and to get Nibbana is the Eight Noble Path.
Magga : The Eight Noble Path
The fourth of Buddha's Truths is Magga, the path that leads to the cessation of Dukkha. Magga is known like the "Middle" path because it is avoiding 2 extremes: the endless pursuit of pleasures, or mortification and extreme asceticism.
Magga is not an "instruction" book, from point A to point B . It is a personnal improvement "program". You must study and progress on the eight points at the same time.
1 - Compréhension juste : Samma Ditthi
2 - Right thinking: Samma sankappa
3 - Right speaking: Samma vaca
4 - Right action: Samma Kammanta
5 - Moyens d'existence juste : Samma ajiva
6 - Effort juste : Samma vayama
7 - Attention juste : Samma Sati
8 - Concentration juste : Samma Samadhi
This "program" is based on 3 very important concepts :
- Ethical rules for life: Sila
- Mental discipline : Samadhi
- Wisdom : Pañña.
The concept is simple to understand (it is more difficult in practice).
How to progress spiritually toward the liberation (enlightment) if you don't have any ethics, make no efforts, drink, lie, kill, live thanks to these means of existences that cause troubles to others ...etc. Again Buddhism is perfectly clear and logical.
When the Bikku (follower of Buddha), by a regular practice of Magga, in the respect of an ethic, thanks to a mental discipline will have reached wisdom, he will be able to reach, by the meditation, the Nibbana. He will be able to free himself from the circle of the reincarnations.
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